Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Jun;5(4):417-27.
Pharmacol Res. 2015 Feb;92:18-22.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. May 2009; 28(5): 431–432.
We believe that adversomics (the immunogenetics and immunogenomics of vaccine adverse events at the individual and population level, respectively) is critical to understanding and preventing serious adverse vaccine-related events, developing the next generation of vaccines, and to improving public confidence in vaccine safety."
Vaccine immunogenetics: bedside to bench to population.
Vaccine. 2008 Nov 18;26(49):6183-8.
Heterogeneity in vaccine immune response: the role of immunogenetics and the emerging field of vaccinomics.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;82(6):653-64.
Variability in Humoral Immunity to Measles Vaccine: New Developments.
The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches.
Vaccine. 2011 Nov 8;29(48):8988-97
Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes and immunity to measles vaccination.
"Associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and very high levels of antibodies (or hyperseroresponsiveness) to measles antigens in a genetically heterogeneous human population are poorly understood. We studied the association between antibody levels after measles vaccination and HLA class I and II alleles among 170 US schoolchildren who received one dose of measles-mumps-rubella II vaccine. Vaccine recipients were divided into two groups: 93 recipients who were seropositive and 77 recipients who were hyperseropositive (the upper 10th percentile of antibody levels of all subjects). Out of all the alleles analyzed, HLA-B(*)7 (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; P = 0.05), DQA1(*)0104 (OR 4.6; P = 0.02) and DPA1(*)0202 (OR 4.8; P = 0.04) alleles were positively associated with hyperseropositivity, whereas HLA-B(*)44 (OR 0.4; P = 0.02), DRB1(*)01 (OR 0.6; P = 0.09), DRB1(*)08 (OR 0.3; P = 0.04), DQB1(*)0301 (OR 0.5; P = 0.04), and DPB1(*)0401 (OR 0.6; P = 0.03) alleles were negatively associated with hyperseropositivity. The alleles B(*)44, DRB1(*)01, DRB1(*)08 and DQA1(*)0104 remained statistically significant after accounting for the effects of other alleles. The results suggest that HLA alleles have important associations with measles antibody hyperseropositivity. These data increase our understanding of measles vaccine-induced immune response and will be useful for future mechanistic work on measles virus antigen processing and presentation in seronegative and hyperseropositive individuals."
"A previously detected association of the CD46 SNP rs2724384 with measles-specific antibodies was successfully replicated in this study. Increased representation of the minor allele G for an intronic CD46 SNP was associated with an allele dose-related decrease (978 vs. 522 mIU/ml, p = 0.0007) in antibody levels. This polymorphism rs2724384 also demonstrated associations with IL-6 (p = 0.02), IFN-α (p = 0.007) and TNF-α (p = 0.0007) responses. Two polymorphisms (coding rs164288 and intronic rs11265452) in the SLAM gene that were associated with measles antibody levels in our previous study were associated with IFN-γ Elispot (p = 0.04) and IL-10 responses (p = 0.0008), respectively, in this study. We found associations between haplotypes, AACGGAATGGAAAG (p = 0.009) and GGCCGAGAGGAGAG (p < 0.001), in the CD46 gene and TNF-α secretion.
Understanding the functional and mechanistic consequences of these genetic polymorphisms on immune response variations could assist in directing new measles and potentially other viral vaccine design, and in better understanding measles immunogenetics."
"Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their intracellular signaling molecules play an important role in innate immunity. In this study, we examined associations between polymorphisms in TLR family genes and measles vaccine-specific immune responses. We genotyped 764 subjects (11-22 years old) after two doses of measles vaccine for TLR signaling SNP markers (n = 454). The major alleles of coding SNPs in the TLR2 (rs3804100) and TLR4 (rs5030710) genes were associated with a dose-related increase (660 vs. 892 mIU/ml, p = 0.002) and a dose-related decrease (2,209 vs. 830 mIU/ml, p = 0.001) in measles-specific antibodies, respectively. A significant association was found between lower measles antibody levels and the haplotype ACGGCGAGAAAAGAGAAGAGAGAGAA (p = 0.01) in the MAP3K7 gene. Furthermore, the minor allele of a SNP (rs702966) of the KIAA1542 (IRF7) gene was associated with a dose-related decrease in IFN-γ Elispot responses (38 vs. 26 spot-forming cells per 2 × 10(5) PBMCs, p = 0.00002). We observed an additional 12 associations (p < 0.01) between coding (nonsynonymous and synonymous) polymorphisms within the TLRs (TLR2, 7, and 8), IKBKE, TICAM1, NFKBIA, IRAK2, and KIAA1542 genes and variations in measles-specific IL-2, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IFNλ-1, and TNF-α secretion levels. Our data demonstrate that polymorphisms in TLR and other related immune response signaling molecules have significant effects on measles vaccine-associated immune responses. These data help to establish the genetic foundation for immune response variation in response to measles immunization and provide important insights for the rational development of new measles vaccines."
"Despite the success of the current measles vaccine in controlling disease in industrialized countries, the importance of vaccine failure has become increasingly apparent. Our objective was to determine if associations exist between seronegativity after measles vaccination and class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. We undertook a cross-sectional observational study in Rochester, Minnesota, with 242 school-age children previously recruited from a communitywide seroprevalence study. We studied two groups of subjects: 72 were seronegative (EIA < or =0.8 after a single dose of measles vaccine) and 170 were seropositive (enzyme immunoassy [EIA] > or =1.0 after one dose). We used the resources of Mayo Clinic's tissue typing laboratory for serotyping class I HLA-A and HLA-B alleles via microlymphocytotoxicity assays. We found no statistically significant associations with class I HLA-A but did find associations with class I HLA-B, which includes alleles associated with seronegativity (B8, B13, and B44) and those associated with seropositivity (B7 and B51). Elucidation of the specific peptide-HLA complex interactions that lead to varying or failed immune responses may provide fertile groundwork for improved vaccines that can overcome limitations of the current live, attenuated measles vaccine."
"While the Moraten strain measles vaccine is an excellent, safe, and immunogenic vaccine, vaccine failure occurs, presumably when an individual develops an inadequate immune response. In this study, we examined the association of HLA class I genes and measles vaccine-induced antibody levels. We found that the allele distribution of HLA-B alleles differed between non-responders and hyper-responders (p = 0.002). Several class I alleles were associated with non-response (HLA-B13, -B44, and -C5); whereas several other alleles were associated with hyper-response (HLA-B7 and -B51). In addition, non-responders were more likely to be HLA-B homozygous than normal responders (odds ratio 2.1), and more likely to be homozygous than hyper-responders (odds ratio 3.7, p = 0.031 Mantel-Haenzel for trend). Finally, we found evidence of an allele dose-response phenomenon for HLA-B7. We conclude that there are important associations between class I HLA genes and measles antibody levels following immunization."
"The distribution of HLA-DRB1 alleles among nonresponders compared to hyper-responders was significantly different (p = 0.014). Nonresponders were significantly less likely to carry the HLA-DRB1*13 alleles than were hyper-responders (7.4% vs 16.2%;p = 0.02). Nonresponders also had an excess of HLA-DRB1*07 alleles (15.4% vs 6.2%; p = 0.015).
The absence of HLA-DRB1*13 alleles is associated with measles vaccine nonresponse. The absence of this allele has also been associated with susceptibility to other infectious diseases. The role of this gene in the immunogenetic response to infectious diseases requires further study."
"HLA-DQA1 alleles have important associations with the antibody response to measles vaccine. Specifically, the carriage of the HLA-DQA1*05 alleles is associated with nonresponse and that of HLA-DQA1*01 alleles with hyper response. In addition, HLA-DQA1 homozygosity is significantly associated with poor antibody response to measles vaccine."
"This is the first study using GeneChip technology to elucidate genetic determinants of the measles vaccine response. A comparative gene expression study was conducted using Affymetrix's Human GeneChip U-95A in 5 human subjects immunized with a 'booster' dose of measles vaccine (Attenuax, Merck) to determine whether serologically distinct subjects exhibit differential expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Healthy individuals aged 15-25 y, previously immunized with 2 doses of measles-mumps-rubella-II (MMR-II) vaccine, were classified as measles vaccine immunoglobulin G-specific antibody seronegatives (n = 2) and seropositives (n = 3). Changes in expression of HLA genes in seronegatives and seropositives were studied on days 7 and 14 post-measles vaccination using Microarray Suite 5.0 (MAS 5.0). There was increased expression of the HLA class I-B (p = 0.0002), HLA class II cluster of DMA, DMB, TAP1, TAP2 (p = 0.0007) and HLA-DR (p = 0.0001) genes, and decreased expression of HLA class I MICB molecule (p = 1), HLA class I-A (p = 0.9999) and major histocompatibility complex class III HSP 70 (p = 0.9999) genes on day 7 or day 14 postvaccination in seropositives compared with seronegatives. These results suggest an association between antibody response and differential HLA gene activation and may explain one potential mechanism underlying measles vaccine non-response."
"These data reveal an association between TAP2 genotype and measles vaccine antibody response which may explain one mechanism behind vaccine failure."
"Of the 838 eligible children, 281 (34%) met criteria for asthma. Measles antibody waned over time (r = -0.19, P < 0.001), specifically more rapidly in asthmatics (r = -0.30, P < 0.001, a decrease of -0.114 unit per year) than non-asthmatics (r = -0.13, P = 0.002, a decrease of -0.046 unit per year; P value for interaction = 0.010). This differential waning rate resulted in a lower mean (SD) measles antibody concentration [1.42 (0.67) vs. 1.67 (0.69), P = 0.008] and lower seropositivity rate (73% vs. 84%, P = 0.038) in asthmatics than non-asthmatics starting around 9.3 years after the initial measles vaccination. CONCLUSION: Asthma status is associated with waning kinetics of measles antibody among children."
Race and Ethnic background were found to be significant factors in the antibody response to vaccination in a recent study from The Mayo Clinic. You can read about it here.